As the proportion of distributed energy resources (DER) increases, and electrical vehicles are being deployed, the transmission and distribution electricity grids have to become smarter and more flexible, ensure reliability, and improve efficiency.
Smart Grids are necessary to reach these targets. Based on a convergence of electricity and telecommunication networks, in order to allow a real-time monitoring and control of the electricity grid, key features include equilibrating production and consumption, identifying and fixing issues, and anticipating maintenance needs.
As the cornerstone of Smart Grids, Smart Metering systems allow for the gathering of consumption and production data on a regular basis (e.g. each hour, each day), support flexible contracts based on a demand-response scheme (including “price signal”) or pay-per-use, and provide information to the customer about its consumption or production.